The Umayyad Caliphate collapsed in due to political divisions and civil unrest during the rule of Hicham II who was ousted because of his indolence. Shahada Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj. Lambton; Bernard Lewis The European powers, and especially Britain and France , globalized economically and colonized much of the region. Main articles: Islam in Ethiopia and Islam in Somalia. Once the Buwayhids controlled Baghdad, Al-Muti became caliph.
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